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transdermal estradiol in advanced PCa protects against


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J Urol. 2005 Aug;174(2):527-33; discussion 532-3.

Transdermal estradiol therapy for prostate cancer reduces thrombophilic activation and protects against thromboembolism.

Ockrim JL, Lalani el-N, Kakkar AK, Abel PD.


Department of Surgical Oncology and Technology, Imperial College and Hammersmith Hospitals NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom.



Oral estrogens were an effective treatment for prostate cancer but were abandoned because of an increased risk of cardiovascular toxicity and particularly thromboembolism. We have recently shown that transdermal estradiol produces an effective tumor response and negligible cardiovascular toxicity. Here we report the influence of transdermal estradiol therapy on the coagulation profile of men with advanced prostate cancer.


A total of 20 patients with newly diagnosed locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer were treated using transdermal estradiol patches and the coagulation profile was assessed before and during 12 months therapy. Activation of coagulation was assessed by assaying the levels of activated factor VII (VIIa), activated factor XII (XIIa), prothrombin fragments 1 and 2 (F1 + 2), thrombin-antithrombin III (TAT III) complex and fibrinogen. Inhibition of the coagulation cascade was assayed by protein C, protein S and activated protein C resistance (APC-R). Fibrinolytic activity was determined by assaying tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) and plasminogen activation inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1). D-Dimer levels assessed both coagulation and fibrinolytic (thrombophilic) activity. Venous Duplex, color Doppler ultrasound and photoplethysmography were used to assess for thrombosis.


Levels of VIIa and XIIa were unaffected by transdermal estradiol therapy. Although levels of TAT III were increased in some patients at 12 months, the increase was markedly less than that observed historically with equivalent doses of oral estrogens. Levels of the inhibitory and fibrinolytic factors including protein C, protein S, APC-R, TPA and PAI-1 remained stable. Reductions in F1+F2, fibrinogen and D-Dimer levels represented a normalization from increased levels to the physiological range.


These results suggest that transdermal estradiol reduces thrombophilic activation in men with advanced prostate cancer, and protects against the risk of thrombosis.

Comment in

J Urol. 2005 Aug;174(2):415-6.

PMID: 16006886 Forum: Primary hormone therapy Title: transdermal estradiol in advanced PCa protects against thrombosis.

This extract can be found on http://PubMed.com, and is in the public domain.

On PubMed.com there will be a link to the full paper (often $30, sometimes free).

Any highlighting (except the title) is not by the author, but by Jim Marshall.

Jim is not a doctor.

This page was found on the Advanced Prostate Cancer Community for Australian men at http://advancedprost...lia.ipbhost.com.

The link is hard to remember.

An easier way to find it is to go to JimJimJimJim.com and click on Prostate.

That's the word Jim four times, no spaces, followed by .com.

If you need other help - to perhaps find someone to talk to or a local support group:

Click on the Contact Jim button at http://JimJimJimJim.com.

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